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15. Bibliografia


Seleccionámos, das cerca de 1500 referências que encontrámos nas várias revistas da especialidade, artigos de áreas como Biologia e Ciências Naturais, Física e Química, Geografia, História, Língua Nativa, Línguas estrangeiras e Matemática. Incluímos ainda um número significativo de referências de âmbito geral, envolvendo aspectos relacionados com a concepção, a avaliação e a teorização genérica de testes de escolha múltipla.

Apenas incluímos referências de artigos em português, francês e inglês mas é nesta última língua que se encontram escritos a grande maioria dos artigos. Não deixámos de incluir algumas referências mais cépticas sobre os Testes de ME, ou mesmo críticas em relação ao seu abuso.

  1. Abrahamowicz, Michal; Ramsay, James-O., Multicategorical Spline Model for Item Response Theor., Psychometrika; v57 n1 p5-27 Mar 1992
  2. Barnett-Foster, Debora; Nagy, Philip, A Comparison of Undergraduate Test Response Strategies for Multiple-Choice and Constructed-Response Questions., Alberta-Journal-of-Educational-Research; v41 n1 p18-35 Mar 1995
  3. Bergevin, Peter-M.; Davison, Dale-L., The Relationship between Objective Format Accounting Examination Validity and Student Native Language., Journal-of-Language-for-International-Business; v6 n1 p23-32 Sum 1994
  4. Bock, R.-Darrell; And-Others, Report on Models for Educational Assessment Involving Multiple-Choice and Free Response Exercises. Open-Ended Exercises in Secondary School Science Assessment. Project 2.4: Quantitative Models To Monitor the Status and Progress of Learning and Performance and Their Antecedents., Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA.
  5. Boodoo, Gwyneth-M., Performance Assessments or Multiple Choice?
  6. Braswell, James-S.; Jackson, Carol-A., An Introduction of a New Free-Response Item Type in Mathematics., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (San Francisco, CA, April 19-21, 1995).
  7. Bridgeman, Brent, A Comparison of Quantitative Questions in Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Formats., Journal-of-Educational-Measurement; v29 n3 p253-71 Fall 1992
  8. Bridgeman, Brent; Lewis, Charles, The Relationship of Essay and Multiple-Choice Scores with Grades in College Courses., Journal-of-Educational-Measurement; v31 n1 p37-50 Spr 1994
  9. Bridgeman, Brent; Morgan, Rick, Relationships between Differential Performance on Multiple-Choice and Essay Sections of Selected AP Exams and Measures of Performance in High School and College, College Board, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J.
  10. Cizek, Gregory-J., The Effect of Altering the Position of Options in a Multiple-Choice Examination., Educational-and-Psychological-Measurement; v54 n1 p8-20 Spr 1994
  11. Crites, Terry, Skilled and Less Skilled Estimators' Strategies for Estimating Discrete Quantities.,Elementary-School-Journal; v92 n5 p601-19 May 1992
  12. Educational-Horizons; v72 n1 p50-56 Fall 1993
  13. Gallagher, Ann; Mandinach, Ellen, Strategy Use on Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Items: An Analysis of Sex Differences among High Scoring Examinees on the SAT-M. Final Report., Educational Testing Service,
  14. Geiger, Marshall-A.; Simons, Kathleen-A., Intertopical Sequencing of Multiple-Choice Questions: Effect on Exam Performance and Testing Time.
  15. Gross, Leon-J, Logical versus Empirical Guidelines for Writing Test Items: The Case of "None of the Above.", Evaluation-and-the-Health-Professions; v17 n1 p123-26 Mar 1994
  16. Hancock, Gregory-R., Cognitive Complexity and the Comparability of Multiple-Choice and Constructed-Response Test Formats., Journal-of-Experimental-Education; v62 n2 p143-57 Win 1994
  17. Harasym, P.-H.; And-Others, Negation in Stems of Single-Response Multiple-Choice Items: An Overestimation of Student Ability., Evaluation-and-the-Health-Professions; v16 n3 p342-57 Sep 1993
  18. Harris, Diana-K.; Changas, Paul-S., Revision of Palmore's Second Facts on Aging Quiz from a True-False to a Multiple-Choice Format., Educational-Gerontology; v20 n8 p741-54 Dec 1994
  19. Hazan, Charlene-Corey, The Development of an Interactive Videodisc Program on Protein Synthesis.; M.A. Project, Wayne State University.
  20. Hellekant, Jan, Are Multiple-Choice Tests Unfair to Girls?, System; v22 n3 p349-52 Aug 1994
  21. Henning, Grant, A Study of the Effects of Contextualization and Familiarization on Responses to the TOEFL Vocabulary Test Items., Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J.
  22. Hilton, Peter, The Tyranny of Tests., American-Mathematical-Monthly; v100 n4 p265-69 Apr 1993
  23. Hoepfl, Marie-C., Developing and Evaluating Multiple Choice Tests., Technology-Teacher; v53 n7 p25-26 Apr 1994
  24. Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia, What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?, Physics-Teacher; v33 n3 p138-43 Mar 1995
  25. Huntley, Renee-M.; Welch, Catherine-J., Numerical Answer Options: Logical or Random Order?, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993).
  26. Jones, Russell-W., Performance and Alternative Assessment Techniques: Meeting the Challenge of Alternative Evaluation Strategies., Paper presented at the International Conference on Educational Evaluation and Assessment (2nd, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, July 1994).
  27. Killoran, James, In Defense of the Multiple-Choice Question., Social-Education; v56 n2 p106-08 Feb 1992
  28. Kolstad, Rosemarie-K.; Kolstad, Robert-A., Applications of Conventional and Non-Restrictive Multiple-Choice Examination Items., Clearing-House; v67 n6 p317-19 Jul-Aug 1994
  29. Lukhele, Robert; And-Others, On the Relative Value of Multiple-Choice, Constructed Response, and Examinee-Selected Items on Two Achievement Tests., Journal-of-Educational-Measurement; v31 n3 p234-50 Fall 1994
  30. McDaniel, Mark-A.; And-Others, The Effects of Test Expectancy on Processing and Memory of Prose.,Contemporary-Educational-Psychology; v19 n2 p230-48 Apr 1994
  31. McMorris, Robert-F.; Boothroyd, Roger-A.,Tests That Teachers Build: An Analysis of Classroom Tests in Science and Mathematics., Applied-Measurement-in-Education; v6 n4 p321-42 1993
  32. Mislevy, Robert-J., A Framework for Studying Differences between Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Test Items., Educational Testing
  33. Powell, J.-C.; Shklov, N.,Obtaining Information about Learners' Thinking Strategies from Wrong Answers on Multiple-Choice Tests., Educational-and-Psychological-Measurement; v52 n4 p847-65 Win 1992
  34. Putnam, M.-Lewis, Characteristics of Questions on Tests Administered by Mainstream Secondary Classroom Teachers., Learning-Disabilities-Research-and-Practice; v7 n3 p129-36 Sum 1992
  35. Ralston, Anthony, Calculators for Teaching and Testing Mathematics: A Mathematician's View., College-Board-Review; n160 p18-21,26 Sum 1991
  36. Saayman, Rikus, A Diagnosis of the Mathematical and Scientific Reasoning Ability of First-Year Physics Undergraduates., Physics-Education; v26 n6 p359-66 Nov 1991
  37. Samejima, Fumiko, Nonparametric Estimation of the Plausibility Functions of the Distractors of Vocabulary Test Items., Applied-Psychological-
  38. Schwarz, Shirley-P.; And-Others, Reasons for Changing Answers: An Evaluation Using Personal Interviews., Journal-of-Educational-Measurement; v28 n2 p163-71 Sum 1991
  39. Scouller, Karen-M.; Prosser, Michael, Students' Experiences in Studying for Multiple Choice Question Examinations., Studies-in-Higher-Education; v19 n3 p267-79 1994
  40. Scouller, Karen-M.; Prosser, Michael, Students' Experiences in Studying for Multiple Choice Question Examinations., Studies-in-Higher-Education; v19 n3 p267-79 1994
  41. Thissen, David; And-Others, Are Tests Comprising Both Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Items Necessarily Less Unidimensional than Multiple-Choice Tests? An Analysis of Two Tests., Journal-of-Educational-Measurement; v31 n2 p113-23 Sum 1994
  42. Trevisan, Michael-S.; And-Others, Estimating the Optimum Number of Options per Item Using an Incremental Option Paradigm., Educational-and-Psychological-Measurement; v54 n1 p86-91 Spr 1994
  43. Wang, Jianjun, Critical Values of Guessing on True-False and Multiple-Choice Tests., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995).
  44. Warkentin, Robert-W.; And-Others, An Exploration of the Effects of Cooperative Assessment on Student Knowledge Structure., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995).
  45. Westers, Paul; Kelderman, Henk, Examining Differential Item Functioning Due to Item Difficulty and Alternative Attractiveness., Psychometrika; v57 n1 p107-18 Mar 1992
  46. Yen, Wendy-M., Scaling Performance Assessments: Strategies for Managing Local Item Dependence.,Journal-of-Educational-Measurement; v30 n3 p187-213 Fall 1993
  47. Zhu, Daming; Thompson, Tony-D., Gender and Ethnic Differences in Tendencies To Omit Responses on Multiple-Choice Tests Using Number-Right Scoring.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995).


Pesquisa Avançada
  Ciência Viva - Agência Nacional para a Cultura Científica e tecnológica CRIE - Equipa de Missão Computadores, Redes e Internet na Escola
FEDER - Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional
POS_C - Programa Operacional Sociedade do Conhecimento
de física Computacional da Universidade de Coimbra
  Cnotinfor, Lda Faculdade 
de Ciências da Universidade do Porto
  Exploratório - Centro Ciência Viva Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
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